Monday, July 28, 2014

Bone and Cartilage Under the Microscope

Bones are rigid organs that support and protect various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Osseous tissue (sometimes referred to as bone tissue) gives bone its rigidity and coral-like internal three-dimensional structure. Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and cartilage.

When a child is born he or she has over 270 bones in the body. Many of these fuse together as the infant grows and an adult human has 206 bones in the body. The largest bone in the human body is the femur in the leg, and the smallest is the stapes, a small bone found in the inner ear.

Bone and cartilage captured under a biological microscope at 40x magnification.
Bone and cartilage captured under the microscope at 40x magnification.
Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that is not as hard as bone, but is stiffer and less flexible than muscle. Cartilage is found in the joints between bones, the rib cage, and even in the ear and nose. Unlike other connective tissue, cartilage does not contain blood vessels.

Bone and cartialge captured under a biological microscope at 100x magnification.
Bone and cartilage captured at 100x under a biological microscope.
Bone and cartilage prepared microscope slide can be purchased as part of the Histology Prepared Slide Kit.

Images of bone and cartilage were captured with the Richter Optica U2 biological microscope using a microscope digital camera.

Biological microscope image captured at 400x magnification.
Bone and cartilage captured at 400x magnification under a biology microscope.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Mouse Embryo under Fuorescence Microscope

The mouse is a highly studied animal in the medical field, and often the mouse embryo is widely observed. This image of a mouse embryo was captured under a fluorescence microscope using the Jenoptik C14+ Research microscope camera.

mouse embryo under fluorescence microscope
Mouse Embryo under a Fluorescence Microscope

Friday, July 18, 2014

Paramecium under the Microscope

Paramecium is a genus of the single cell Ciliate Protozoa and are found in freshwater, marine areas, and often in stagnant ponds. Paramecium are unique to microscopy because they were one of the first ciliates to be seen by microscopists in the late 17th century.

Paramecium under microscope at 400x
Paramecium captured under the microscope at 400x.

In 1718 the French math teacher and microscopist Louis Joblot published a description and illustration of a microscopic "Poisson" (translated fish) that he discovered in an infusion of oak bark in water. It was a Paramecium. He called it "Chausson" (translated slipper) and the term slipper animalcule remained in use as an everyday description for Paramecium throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.

Microcope image of paramecium at 100x
Paramecium captured at 100x under the microscope.
The name "Paramecium" was constructed from the Greek paramekes and means "oblong".

Microscopic image of paramecium at 400x
Paramecium, 400x
All Paramecium images were captured using the U1 trinocular biological microscope and a microscope digital camera.

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

How to Calculate Stereo Microscope Magnification

Stereo microscope magnification is a combination of the eyepiece magnification (most commonly 10x) and the objective lens magnification (typically anywhere between 0.7x - 5x). If you are using a stereo microscope with 10x eyepieces and the zoom knob is set to 4x, the total magnification formula would look like this:

10 x 4 = 40x magnification

stereo microscope magnification image
Eyepiece Magnification x Objective Lens Magnification = Stereo Microscope Magnification

The other addition that can alter total magnification is if the stereo microscope has an auxiliary lens added to it. If this is the case, the auxiliary lens is also multiplied into the equation. Say you are using a stereo microscope with 10x eyepieces, the zoom knob is set to 5x and you also have a 0.3x auxiliary lens on the microscope. Total magnification would be determined with the following formula:

10 x 5 x 0.3 = 15x magnification

stereo microscope auxiliary lens image
Stereo Microscope Auxiliary Lens

microscope eyepiece magnification
Microscope Eyepiece Magnification of 10x

Often the magnification of the microscope eyepiece will follow the letters "WF", depicting a Widefield eyepiece.

zoom microscope knob image
Stereo Zoom Microscope Knob for adjusting Zoom Magnification
The adjustment for the zoom objective lens value is found on the side of the microscope and the corresponding objective number is printed on the knob.

On a basic stereo microscope setup, to determine total magnification simply look at the magnification on the eyepiece and on the zoom knob. Stereo microscope auxiliary lenses are only usually used when the working distance needs to be adjusted or in some cases if magnification is being pushed quite high. For questions about stereo microscope magnification contact Microscope World.

Monday, July 14, 2014

Radiolaria under the Microscope

Radiolaria are protozoa that produce intricate mineral skeletons. These skeletons, found as zooplankton throughout the ocean, usually have a central capsule that divides the cell into inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm. The cell nucleus is in the endoplasm, while the ectoplasm is filled with frothly vacuoles and lipid droplets. Radiolarians are incredibly buoyant due to their needle-like pseudopodia that are supported by bundles of microtubles.

Radiolaria under the microscope at 100x
Radiolaria captured at 100x magnification under a biological microscope.
These images of Radiolaria were captured using the Richter Optica U2 biological microscope with a 5 mega pixel microscope camera.

Radiolaria at 400x under microscope
Radiolaria, 400x magnification
Ninety percent of radiolarian species are extinct. The skeletons of ancient radiolarians are used in geological dating, including for oil exploration and determination of ancient climates. Higher concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water dissolves the Radiolaria's delicate structure, seen as fractured scattered pieces under a microscope.

Radiolaria under microscope 400x
Radiolaria, 400x magnification.
Radiolaria under microscope at 400x.
Radiolaria, 400x magnification.