Monday, January 23, 2017

Telephone Cable Wires under the Microscope

Microscope World recently had a customer interested in viewing the internal cables of their telephone wires under the microscope. The images below are of a telephone cable and were captured using the SMZ168 stereo zoom microscope with the HDCAM4 high definition microscopy camera.

Microscopy image of a telephone cable captured under the microscope at 10x.
Telephone cable under the SMZ168 stereo microscope at 10x.

Telephone cable under the microscope at 20x.
Telephone cable under the SMZ168 stereo microscope at 20x.

Microscope World image of a telephone cable captured at 40x magnification.
Telephone cable under the SMZ168 stereo microscope at 40x.

Microscopy image of telephone wires captured under the microscope at 50x.
Telephone cable under the SMZ168 stereo microscope at 50x.

100x magnification telephone wire.
Telephone cable under the SMZ168 stereo microscope at 100x.

Notice that the last image isn't entirely in focus, this is because the sample is not entirely flat and parts of the wire are out of the smaller focus area that is found at higher magnifications.

For questions regarding microscopy images and applications contact Microscope World.

Friday, January 13, 2017

Kidney under the Microscope

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that extract waste from the blood, balance body fluids, form urine, and aid in other important functions of the body. The kidneys reside against the back muscles in the upper abdominal cavity. They sit opposite each other on either side of the spine.

These are a few of the kidney's responsibilities:
  • Waste Excretion: The kidneys filter out toxins, excess salts, and urea, a nitrogen-based waste created by cell metabolism. Urea is synthesized in the liver and transported through the blood to the kidneys for removal.
  • Water Level Balancing: Since the kidneys are key in the chemical breakdown of urine, they react to changes in the body's water level throughout the day. As water intake decreases, the kidneys adjust accordingly and leave water in the body instead of helping excrete it.
  • Blood Pressure Regulation: The kidneys need constant pressure to filter the blood. When it drops too low, the kidneys increase pressure. One way is by producing a blood vessel constricting protein (angiotensin) that also signals the body to retain sodium and water. Both the constriction and retention help restore normal blood pressure.
  • Red Blood Cell Regulation: When the kidneys don't get enough oxygen, they send out a distress call in the form of erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more oxygen-carrying red blood cells.
  • Acid Regulation: As cells metabolize, they produce acids. Foods we eat can either increase the acid in our body or neutralize it. In order to function properly the body must keep a healthy balance of these chemicals. The kidneys perform this job also.
People can live with only one kidney and transplant surgeries with live donors are common in medical procedures today.

The kidney microscopy images below were captured under the Fein Optic RB30 lab microscope using a 5 megapixel CMOS camera.

Microscope World image of a kidney under the lab microscope at 40x magnification.
Kidney under the microscope at 40x.

Microscopy image of a kidney captured at 100x.
Kidney under the microscope at 100x.

Microscope image of the kidney captured at 400x magnification.
Kidney under the microscope at 400x.

Contact Microscope World with questions regarding microscope systems and digital cameras.

Wednesday, January 4, 2017

What are Backlit CMOS Sensor Microscopy Cameras?

Typically there have been two image sensors used in microscopy cameras: CCD and CMOS. The CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor historically created less noise, but these were also more expensive than CMOS sensors. CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor) sensors are camera sensors that are constructed on one large piece of silicon to include electronic circuitry for controlling the sensor by mounting them on the surface of the silicon instead of being contained in a separate circuit.

A back-illuminated or backlit CMOS sensor is different from a traditional CMOS sensor in that all the wiring and circuitry used to carry electronic signals from each pixel is located at the back of the sensor instead of on the front. By moving this circuitry to the back of the sensor more light is able to reach each pixel, which results in the backlit CMOS sensor being able to record images in lower light and with less digital noise. Digital noise in photos typically results in photos with more fuzz, especially in low light.

Jenoptik backlit CMOS sensor microscopy cameras.
Jenoptik Microscopy Cameras
The Jenoptik line of microscopy cameras all have backlit CMOS sensors and perform exceptionally well in low light conditions. The microscope cameras include:

  • Arktur - 8 Megapixel Color Camera
  • Subra - Full HD Color Microscope Camera
  • Naos - 19.4 Megapixel color Camera
  • Kapella - Full HD / 2.3 Megapixel Color Camera
  • Rigel - Full HD / 2.3 Megapixel Monochrome Camera
  • Prokyon - 20.7 Megapixel Color Camera

View a chart comparing all the Jenoptik microscopy cameras here.

Contact Microscope World with questions regarding microscopy cameras and sensors.

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Fluorescence Microscopy Camera

The Infinity 3-6UR microscopy camera is a high resolution 6 megapixel CCD camera that performs exceptionally well in low light scenarios such as fluorescence microscopy.

The image below was captured by CTK Instruments with FITC and DAPI on a fluorescence microscope using the Infinity 3-6URC color microscope camera.

Fluorescence microscopy image captured with Infinity 3-6UR camera.
CTK Instruments fluorescence microscopy image using Infinity 3-6UR camera.

For more information on high end research Zeiss microscopes contact CTK Instruments.

For more information on Lumenera microscopy cameras contact Microscope World.

Monday, December 19, 2016

Pine Tree under the Microscope

Wishing you a very happy holidays from Microscope World!

Happy Holidays from Microscope World!

Below are images of the cross section of a pine needle (from a Christmas tree!) captured under a biological microscope using the Jenoptik Naos microscopy camera.

Microscope World image of a pine needle cross section at 100x.
Cross section of a pine needle at 100x captured using the Jenoptik Naos microscope camera.

Microscope image of a pine needle cross section under the microscope at 200x.
Cross section of a pine needle at 200x captured using the Jenoptik Naos microscope camera.

Contact Microscope World for more information on microscopy cameras or microscopes. Happy Holidays!

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Lungs under the Microscope

The lungs are sponge-like organs that fill the chest cavity and make up most of the lower respiratory tract. Their most important job is providing oxygen to capillaries so they can oxygenate blood. Each lung is divided into lobes. The right lung has three lobes, but the left lung only has two in order to provide room for the heart.

Together the lungs' tissue surface is almost 40 times greater than the body's outer surface, making the lungs as a whole one of the largest organs in the body.

Each lung houses a bronchial tree, which gets its name from the intricate network of air passages that supply the lungs with air. The air-filled sacs in the lungs called alveoli resemble grape clusters. Blood cells known as macrophages, located inside each alveolus, ingest and destroy airborne irritants that enter the lungs. After you exhale, the lungs stay partly inflated because of a fluid called surfactant that is produced by special cells and secreted within the alveoli. Surfactant contains fatty proteins and helps prevent lung infections.

Suffering from a respiratory disorder is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits in industrialized countries where the air is filled with chemicals, pollutants, dust, pollen, bacteria and viruses. The billions of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi in the air can enter the lungs and make respiratory infections common. Some infections, such as the common cold or sinusitis, affect the upper respiratory tract. Others, such as bronchitis and pneumonia affect the lower respiratory tract.

The images below are of the lung structure and were captured using the RB30 lab microscope with a 5mp basic documentation microscopy camera.

Microscopy image of lung structure captured by Microscope World.
Lung structure captured under a lab microscope at 40x.

Microscopy image of lungs under the microscope at 100x captured by Microscope World.
Lung structure captured under a lab microscope at 100x.

Image of lungs under the microscope at 400x captured by Microscope World.
Lung structure captured under a lab microscope at 400x.

Contact Microscope World for more information about microscope solutions.

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Quantum Efficiency and Microscopy Cameras

Microscope cameras and the importance of quantum efficiency.
Quantum efficiency (QE) is the measure of the effectiveness of a camera imager to produce an electronic charge from incident photons. In non-scientific terms it is a measurement of how efficient the camera is at capturing available light. The higher the number, the better the microscope camera is at this function.

When light is digitized photons pass through a camera sensor and are converted to electrons. Before the light is digitized they are stored as pixels. The number of electrons that are stored is referred to as "saturation capacity." Extra electrons are discarded once capacity is reached. QE is the percent of photons that are converted to electrons at a particular wavelength through the sensor.

So what exactly does this mean in terms of microscopy cameras? Typically microscope cameras with a higher quantum efficiency will perform better in low-light conditions. A new way to improve quantum efficiency is through a back illuminated sensor. Jenoptik is using back-illuminated sensors in their new line of Gryphax cameras. Back illumination means the sensor is back-thinned and light is delivered from the back making it easier for incident photos to reach and be absorbed in the active layer of the sensor.

A few of the microscope cameras with higher quantum efficiency include:
Microscopy image captured with the Jenoptik Arktur back-illuminated microscope sensor.
Microscopy image captured with the Jenoptik Gryphax Arktur back-illuminated sensor.